Wörterbuch

Wirtschaftsarchäologisches Wörterbuch

EnglischDeutschDefinitionBereich
Neo-Malthusian modelNeo-Malthusianistisches ModelNeo-Malthusianism generally refers to people with the same basic concerns as Malthus, who advocate population control programs, to ensure resources for current and future populations. In Britain the term Malthusian can also refer more specifically to arguments made in favour of preventive birth control, hence organizations such as the Malthusian League. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malthusianism)Artikel Lo Cascio
organic economies (a term used by Tony Wrigley for indicating the economies that did not exploit as a source of energy fossil fuelsorganische Ökonomie / natürliche ÖkonomieIn organic economies in the past it was a necessary condition for sustained growth that the land should be made to yield more abundantly. In such economies almost all the raw materials which entered into the production process were either of animal or vegetable origin, or, if mineral, could only be converted into a form of use to man by the expenditure of heat energy derived from wood. (E.A. Wrigley, The transition to an advanced organic economy: half a millennium of English agriculture. The Economic History Review 59/3, 2006, 435-480).Artikel Lo Cascio
tributary empiretributpflichtiges ReichPredation went on after the conquest in the form of a regular levy of tributes from the conquered regions by the state and the collection of rents by the imperial élite. The Emperors were “stationary bandits”, to use the conceptualizations and the terminology of Mancur Olson. (Elio Lo Cascio, The new economic history of the Roman Empire: new paradigms and new approaches to material evidence.)Artikel Lo Cascio
stationary banditunbeweglicher BanditUnder anarchy, uncoordinated competitive theft by "roving bandits" destroys the incentive to invest and produce, leaving little for either the population or the bandits. Both can be better off if a bandit sets himself up as a dictator--a "stationary bandit" who monopolizes and rationalizes theft in the form of taxes. A secure autocrat has an encompassing interest in his domain that leads him to provide a peaceful order and other public goods that increase productivity. (Mancur Olson, Dictatorship, Democracy, and Development. The American Political Science Review 87/3, 1993, 567-576)Artikel Lo Cascio
low countersArtikel Lo Cascio
high countersArtikel Lo Cascio
middle countersArtikel Lo Cascio
Smithian growth An economy where growth is driven by increased specialization caused by the geographical expansion of markets. (Morgan Kelly, The Dynamics of Smithian Growth. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 112/3, 1997, 939-964)Artikel Lo Cascio
allocationAllokation (Verteilung)In economics, resource allocation is the assignment of available resources to various uses. In the context of an entire economy, resources can be allocated by various means, such as markets or central planning.Austausch
chrematisticChrematistik From Greek: χρηματιστική (or the art of getting rich): Aristotle established a difference between economics and chrematistics that would be foundational in medieval thought. For Aristotle, the accumulation of money itself is an unnatural activity that dehumanizes those who practice it. Trade Exchanges, money for goods, and usury creates money from money, but do not produce useful goods. Hence, Aristotle, like Plato,[citation needed] condemns these actions from the standpoint of their philosophical ethics. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chrematistics)Austausch
fall-off-curvesfall-off-KurvenDescribe the relationship between number or share of artefacts in relation to the distance from source (Renfrew 1984)Austausch
gift exchangeGabentauschAn exchange between symmetrical parties based on obligation and a time delay between gift and countergift. (Mauss 1923/24)Austausch
tradeHandelMoney is used during the process of exchange of goods or services as a medium of exchange. Austausch
marketMarkt"In a frequently cited definition, Frederic Pryor (1977:437, see also 31–33, 104–108) describes market exchange as “exchange transactions where the economic forces of supply and demand are highly visible.” By “highly visible” he means that “important changes in the relative prices, the quantities of goods offered or sought, or the quality of the goods can be easily traced to changes in supply and demand forces”" (C. P. Garraty, Investigating Market Exchange in Ancient Societies: A Theoretical Review. In: C. P. Garraty/B. L. Stark (Hrsg.), Archaeological approaches to market exchange in ancient societies (Boulder 2010), 3–32.)Austausch
redistributionRedistributionA central authorithy collects and distributs goods and services within a society. Usally a feature of state controlled societies like the Soviet Union or Ancient Egypt.Austausch
reciprocityReziprozitätA mutal exchange between (symmetrical) partners (Sahlin 1972)Austausch
barterTauschhandelAn exchange of objects between different parties without a time delay during the process of exchange (Humphrey/Hugh-Jones 1992, Barter, exchange and value: An anthropological approach)Austausch
use-life approachesAnsätze zur Nutzung(sdauer) von ObjektenUse-life approaches focus on changes to the morphological or functional characteristics of an object or artefact, following, for
example, the reduction of a stone tool through successive episodes of flaking and grinding, focusing on the way its shape and use change as it becomes progressively smaller. (Gosden, Marshall 1999)
Konsum
consumerismKonsumismusConsumerism is a social and economic order and ideology that encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consumerism; Majewski / Shiffer 2009)Konsum
object biographyObjektbiographieNot only do objects change through their existence, but they often have the capability of accumulating histories, so that the present significance of an object derives from the persons and
events to which it is connected. (Gosden, Marshall 1999; comp. Kopytoff 1986).
Konsum
performanceLeistungPerformance is something, economists are typical interested in - for example output, distribution of costs and utility, stability of production. By explaining performance the focus of analysis is total output, per capita output and wealth distribution within a society. North, Structure and change in economic history, p. 3 (New York 1981).NIÖ
transaction costsTransaktionskostenTransaction costs are the costs of specifying and enforcing the
contracts that underlie exchange. They include all the costs involved in capturing the gains from trade. Whether exchange occurs across markets or as part of the production process inside firms, the resources devoted to the organization and integration of the production and marketing of goods and services are a large—and growing—share of the total costs of goods and services. (North 1984, 256)
NIÖ
transportation costsTransportkostenThe energy cost of transport quantifies the energy efficiency of transporting an animal or vehicle from one place to another. As a dimensionless quantity, it allows for the comparison of dissimilar animals or modes of transportation. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cost_of_transport)NIÖ
economic structureWirtschaftsstruktur"By ‘structure’ I mean those characteristics of a society which we believe to be the basic determinants of performance. Here I include the political and economic institutions, technology, demography, and ideology of a society." North, Structure and change in economic history, p. 3 (New York 1981).NIÖ
economic systemWirtschaftssystemAn economic system is a system of production, resource allocation, and distribution of goods and services within a society or a given geographic area. It includes the combination of the various institutions, agencies, entities, decision-making processes, and patterns of consumption that comprise the economic structure of a given community. As such, an economic system is a type of social system. The mode of production is a related concept. All economic systems have three basic questions to ask: what to produce, how to produce and in what quantities, and who receives the output of production. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_system)NIÖ
efficencyEffizienzEconomic efficiency is, roughly speaking, a situation in which nothing can be improved without something else being hurt.Ökonomik
law of diminishing returnsGesetz des sinkenden GrenzertragsThe law of diminishing returns states that in all productive processes, adding more of one factor of production, while holding all others constant ("ceteris paribus"), will at some point yield lower incremental per-unit returns. The law of diminishing returns does not imply that adding more of a factor will decrease the total production, a condition known as negative returns, though in fact this is common.Ökonomik
marginal costGrenzkostenIn economics, marginal cost is the change in the total cost that arises when the quantity produced is incremented by one unit, that is, it is the cost of producing one more unit of a good. In general terms, marginal cost at each level of production includes any additional costs required to produce the next unit.Ökonomik
marginal productGrenzproduktIn economics and in particular neoclassical economics, the marginal product or marginal physical product of an input (factor of production) is the change in output resulting from employing one more unit of a particular input (for instance, the change in output when a firm's labor is increased from five to six units), assuming that the quantities of other inputs are kept constant. [1]Ökonomik
scarcityKnappheitOne principle in economics: Resources are scare by definition in comparison to the unlimited wants of the homo oeconomicus.Ökonomik
consumptionKonsumÖkonomik
short runkurze FristThe long run contrasts with the short run, in which some factors are variable and others are fixed, constraining entry or exit from an industry. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Long_run_and_short_run)Ökonomik
long runlange FristIn microeconomics, the long run is the conceptual time period in which there are no fixed factors of production, so that there are no constraints preventing changing the output level by changing the capital stock or by entering or leaving an industry. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Long_run_and_short_run)Ökonomik
surplusMehrwertThe term "surplus" was introduced by Karl Marx. In Theories of Surplus Value, Marx says in classical economics the "surplus" referred to an excess of gross income over cost, which implied that the value of goods sold was greater than the value of the costs involved in producing or supplying them.Ökonomik
pricePreisIn ordinary usage, price is the quantity of payment or compensation given by one party to another in return for goods or services.Ökonomik
productionProduktionÖkonomik
rationality (homo oeconomicus)RationalitätHomo economicus is seen as "rational" in the sense that well-being as defined by the utility function is optimized given perceived opportunities. That is, the individual seeks to attain very specific and predetermined goals to the greatest extent with the least possible cost. Note that this kind of "rationality" does not say that the individual's actual goals are "rational" in some larger ethical, social, or human sense, only that he tries to attain them at minimal cost. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homo_economicus)Ökonomik
homo oeconomicussiehe RationalitätÖkonomik
returns to scaleSkalenerträgeThe term returns to scale arises in the context of a firm's production function. It explains the behavior of the rate of increase in output (production) relative to the associated increase in the inputs (the factors of production) in the long runÖkonomik
(specialised) labor(spezialisierte) ArbeitWage-labor forces of the industrial West, where employment is contractual in nature and based on skill and availability. (Costin 1991)Produktion
attached productionabhängige ProduktionThe work of attached specialists is upon "command". (Costin 1991)Produktion
skillFähigkeitA skill is the ability to carry out a task with pre-determined results often within a given amount of time, energy, or both. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skill)Produktion
nucleated productiongruppierte ProduktionProduktion
intensiy of productionProduktionsintensitätCharacterizes the organization of production is the intensity of specialization, which reflects the amount of time producers spend on their craft. (Costin 1991)Produktion
context of productionProduktionskontextConsiders the nature of control over production and distribution. The context of production describes the affiliation of the producers and the sociopolitical component of the demand for their wares. (Costin 1991)Produktion
concentration of productionProduktionskonzentrationCharacterizes the geographic organization of production. Here, the focus is on how specialists are distributed across the landscape, and their spatial relationship vis-à-vis one another and the consumers for whom they produce. (Costin 1991)Produktion
scale of productionProduktionsumfangDescribes the composition of the production unit. It encompasses two related variables: size and principles of labor recruitment. Size reflects the actual number of individuals working in a single production unit. The principles of recruitment reflect the way craftspeople are brought into the production system. (Costin 1991)Produktion
standardizationStandardisierungStandardization or standardisation is the process of mplementing and developing technical standards based on the consensus of different parties that include firms, users, interest groups, standards organizations and governments. Standardization can help to maximize compatibility, interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality. It can also facilitate commoditization of formerly custom processes. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standardization)Produktion
part-timeTeilzeitCasual, part time specialization where commodity production or labor service is used to augment basic domestic production of subsistence products. (Costin 1991)Produktion
independent productionunabhängige ProduktionIndependent specialists produce for a general market of potential customers. (Costin 1991)Produktion
dispersed productionverteilelte ProduktionProduktion
kin-based productionverwandtschaftliche ProduktionSmall, individual or family-based production
units. (Costin 1991)
Produktion
full-timeVollzeitThe household subsistence provider(s) work(s) exclusively at one task, exchanging its products for all other goods and services used by the household. (Costin 1991)Produktion
formalismFormalismusMovement in economic anthroplogy using modern economic theory to describe non-western economies.Wirtschaftsethnologie
economizingsparen / wirtschaftlich handelnDealing with scare resources: 1) conscious decision 2) between two or more alternatives 3) with efficiency as the first premise during the decision process. Wirtschaftsethnologie
stratificationStratifizierung (Hierarchisierung)Wirtschaftsethnologie
substantivsmSubstantivismusMovement in economic anthropology interested in the institutional arrangements of non-western economies. Reject the idea of using modern economic theory to describe these societies.Wirtschaftsethnologie
transaction activityTransaktionshandlungDescribes the transmisson of goods and services containing a certain value (Rössler 2005)Wirtschaftsethnologie
transaction principleTransaktionsprinzipDescribes the relationship of transaction partners (Rössler 2005).Wirtschaftsethnologie
supplyAngebotIn economics, supply is the amount of something that firms, consumers, laborers, providers of financial assets, or other economic agents are willing to provide to the marketplace. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supply_(economics))Ökonomik
incentivesAnreizeThe study of economics in modern societies is mostly concerned with remunerative incentives rather than moral or coercive incentives – not because the latter two are unimportant, but rather because remunerative incentives are the main form of incentives employed in the world of business, whereas moral and coercive incentives are more characteristic of the sorts of decisions studied by political science and sociology. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incentive#Economics)Ökonomik
laborArbeitIn economics, labour is a measure of the work done by human beings. It is conventionally contrasted with such other factors of production as land and capital. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Labour_economics)Ökonomik
landBodenIn economics, land comprises all naturally occurring resources whose supply is inherently fixed[1]. Examples are any and all particular geographical locations, mineral deposits, forests, fish stocks, atmospheric quality, geostationary orbits, and portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Natural resources are fundamental to the production of all goods, including capital goods. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Land_(economics))Ökonomik
gross-domestic-product (GDP)BruttoinlandsproduktGross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly). Nominal GDP estimates are commonly used to determine the economic performance of a whole country or region, and to make international comparisons. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gross_domestic_product)Ökonomik
dirigistedirigistischDirigisme or dirigism (from French diriger, meaning "to direct") is an economic system where the state exerts a strong directive influence over investment. It designates a capitalist economy in which the state plays a strong directive role, as opposed to a merely regulatory one. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dirigisme)Ökonomik
average productDurchschnittsproduktRatio of total product to the total quantity of an input used to produce the product. (http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/average-product.html)Ökonomik
property rightsEigentumsrechteProperty rights are theoretical socially-enforced constructs in economics for determining how a resource or economic good is used and owned. Resources can be owned by (and hence be the property of) individuals, associations or governments. Property rights can be viewed as an attribute of an economic good. This attribute has four broad components and is often referred to as a bundle of rights:
- the right to use the good
- the right to earn income from the good
- the right to transfer the good to others
- the right to enforce property rights
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Property_rights_(economics))
NIÖ
self-consumptionEigenverbrauch
common propertyGemeingutCommon property or collective property is property that is owned by a group of individuals. Access, use, and exclusion are controlled by the joint owners. True commons can break down, but, unlike open-access property, common property owners have greater ability to manage conflicts through shared benefits and enforcement. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Property_rights_(economics))Ökonomik
just priceGerechter PreisThe just price is a theory of ethics in economics that attempts to set standards of fairness in transactions. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Just_price)Ökonomik
profit-making opportunitiesGewinnchancenÖkonomik
capitalKapitalIn economics, capital goods, real capital, or capital assets are already-produced, durable goods or any non-financial asset that is used in production of goods or services. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capital_(economics))Ökonomik
cartelKartelA cartel is a group of formally independent producers whose goal is to increase their collective profits by means of price fixing, limiting supply, or other restrictive practices. Cartels typically control selling prices, but some are organized to control the prices of purchased inputs. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cartel)Ökonomik
cliometricsKliometrieCliometrics, sometimes called new economic history, or econometric history, is the systematic application of economic theory, econometric techniques, and other formal or mathematical methods to the study of history (especially social and economic history). It is a quantitative (as opposed to qualitative or ethnographic) approach to economic history. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cliometrics)Wirtschaftsgeschichte
comparative advantagekomparativer VorteilThe theory of comparative advantage is an economic theory about the work gains from trade for individuals, firms, or nations that arise from differences in their factor endowments or technological progress. In an economic model, agents have a comparative advantage over others in producing a particular good if they can produce that good at a lower relative opportunity cost or autarky price, i.e. at a lower relative marginal cost prior to trade. One does not compare the monetary costs of production or even the resource costs (labor needed per unit of output) of production. Instead, one must compare the opportunity costs of producing goods across countries. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparative_advantage)Ökonomik
competitionKonkurrenzIn economics, "competition" is the rivalry among sellers trying to achieve such goals as increasing profits, market share, and sales volume by varying the elements of the marketing mix: price, product, distribution, and promotion. Merriam-Webster defines competition in business as "the effort of two or more parties acting independently to secure the business of a third party by offering the most favorable terms." (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Competition_(economics))Ökonomik
malthusianism Malthusianismus Malthusianism is a school of ideas derived from the political/economic thought of the Reverend Thomas Robert Malthus, as laid out in his 1798 writings, An Essay on the Principle of Population, which describes how unchecked population growth is exponential while the growth of the food supply was expected to be arithmetical. Malthus believed there were two types of "checks" that could then reduce the population, returning it to a more sustainable level. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malthusianism)Wirtschaftsgeschichte
market integration MarktinetgrationMarket integration occurs when prices among different locations or related goods follow similar patterns over a long period of time. Groups of prices often move proportionally to each other and when this relation is very clear among different markets it is said that the markets are integrated. Thus market integration is an indicator that explains how much different markets are related to each other. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Market_integration)Ökonomik
regulatory economics
MarktregulierungRegulatory economics is the economics of regulation. It is the application of law by government or independent administrative agencies for various purposes, including remedying market failure, protecting the environment, centrally-planning an economy, enriching well-connected firms, or benefiting politicians. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regulatory_economics)Ökonomik
market imperfection / market failureMarktversagenIn economics, market failure is a situation in which the allocation of goods and services is not efficient. That is, there exists another conceivable outcome where an individual may be made better-off without making someone else worse-off. Market failures can be viewed as scenarios where individuals' pursuit of pure self-interest leads to results that are not efficient – that can be improved upon from the societal point of view. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Market_failure)Ökonomik
modernistsModernismusMovement in ancient history using modern economic theory to describe ancient economies.Wirtschaftsgeschichte
monopolyMonopolA monopoly exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monopoly)Ökonomik
monopolistic competitionMonopolistische KonkurrenzMonopolistic competition is a type of imperfect competition such that many producers sell products that are differentiated from one another (e.g. by branding or quality) and hence are not perfect substitutes. In monopolistic competition, a firm takes the prices charged by its rivals as given and ignores the impact of its own prices on the prices of other firms. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monopolistic_competition)Ökonomik
demandNachfrageIn economics, demand is the quantity of a commodity or a service that people are willing or able to buy at a certain price. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demand)Ökonomik
nominal incomeNominaleinkommen Income unadjusted for the effects of inflation or deflation, and stated in the currency in which it is earned. (http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/nominal-income.html).Ökonomik
utilityNutzenThe total satisfaction derived from the consumption
of goods or services. To be contrasted with marginal utility,
which is the additional utility arising from consumption of an additional unit of the commodity. (Samuelson / Nordhaus 2009, 675)
Ökonomik
utility maximizationNutzenmaximierungNot only used in Microeconomics, it often used to explain human propensity or human behavior in terms of evolutionary psychology. Human has been known as "fitness maximizers" or "utility maximizers", which means that people tend to strive to obtain the greatest amount of profit and value possible when individuals invest on something. According to this theory, people would not behave irrationally or make any reckless decision that might hurt or devalue their property. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utility_maximization_problem)Ökonomik
public propertyöffentliches GutPublic property (also known as state property) is property that is owned by all, but its access and use are controlled by the state or community. An example is a national park or a state-owned enterprise. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Property_rights_(economics))Ökonomik
economyÖkonomieAn economy is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents in a given geographical location. Understood in its broadest sense, 'The economy is defined as a social domain that emphasizes the practices, discourses, and material expressions associated with the production, use, and management of resources'. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy)Ökonomik
economicsÖkonomikEconomics is "a social science concerned chiefly with description and analysis of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services" according to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary. The discipline was renamed in the late 19th century primarily due to Alfred Marshall from "political economy" to "economics" as a shorter term for "economic science" at a time when it became more open to rigorous thinking and made increased use of mathematics, which helped support efforts to have it accepted as a science and as a separate discipline outside of political science and other social sciences. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economics)Ökonomik
economic rentökonomische RenteIn economics, economic rent is any payment to a factor of production in excess of the cost needed to bring that factor into production. In classical economics, economic rent is any payment made (including imputed value) or benefit received for non-produced inputs such as location (land) and for assets formed by creating official privilege over natural opportunities (e.g., patents). In neoclassical economics, economic rent also includes income gained by beneficiaries of other contrived exclusivity, such as labor guilds and unofficial corruption. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_rent)Ökonomik
price fixingPreisfixierungPrice fixing is an agreement between participants on the same side in a market to buy or sell a product, service, or commodity only at a fixed price, or maintain the market conditions such that the price is maintained at a given level by controlling supply and demand. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Price_fixing)Ökonomik
volatility of pricesPreisvolatilitätIn finance, volatility is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volatility_(finance))Ökonomik
primitivismPrimitivismusMovement in ancient history rejecting the idea of using modern economic theory to describe ancient economies.Ökonomik
private propertyPrivateigentumPrivate property is both excludable and rival. Private property access, use, exclusion and management are controlled by the private owner or a group of legal owners. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Property_rights_(economics))Ökonomik
productivityProduktivitätProductivity is an average measure of the efficiency of production. It can be expressed as the ratio of output to inputs used in the production process, i.e. output per unit of input. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Productivity)Ökonomik
profitProfit/GewinnProfit is an income distributed to the owner in a profitable market production process (business). Profit is a measure of profitability which is the owner’s major interest in income formation process of market production. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Profit_(accounting))Ökonomik
per capita incomePro-Kopf-EinkommenPer capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area (city, region, country, etc.) in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Per_capita_income)Ökonomik
real incomeRealeinkommenReal income is income of individuals or nations after adjusting for inflation. It is calculated by dividing nominal income by the price level. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Real_income)Ökonomik
affluent (cf. Marshall Sahlins, Stone Age Economics)reich / im Überfluss schwimmendEthnologie
speculationSpekulationSpeculation is the purchase of an asset (a commodity, goods, or real estate) with the hope that it will become more valuable at a future date. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speculation)Ökonomik
tax-farmingSteuerpachtTax farming is the principle of assigning the responsibility for tax revenue collection to private citizens or groups.  Tax farming occurred in Eygpt, Rome, Great Britain, and Greece.  The principle was considered very effective for tax revenue collection  but suffered from a tendency of the tax-farmers to abuse the taxpayer for collection.  Only when the system included checks and balances for the tax-farmer as well as the taxpayer did the system seem truly successful.  The publicani of Rome were known as some of the most abusive tax-farmers.   Tax farmers bid at auction for the contract rights to collect a particular tax and was held responsible for any loss.   In Eygpt taxes for collected very effectively without tax farmers until the Greek Ptolemies set up rule.  Under the Ptolemies the tax-farmer watched over the taxpayer and the government tax collector to prevent the scribes from imposing lighter taxes on the poor and unfortunate. (https://www.taxworld.org/History/tax_farming.htm)Wirtschaftsgeschichte
affluent societyÜberflussgesellschaftEthnologie
vulnerabilityVulnerabilitätDegree to which people, property, resources, systems, and cultural, economic, environmental, and social activity is susceptible to harm, degradation, or destruction on being exposed to a hostile agent or factor. (http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/vulnerability.html)Ökonomik
commodity Ware / GutIn economics, a commodity is a marketable item produced to satisfy wants or needs. Often the item is fungible. Economic commodities comprise goods and services. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commodity)Ökonomik
competitive market / perfect competitionWettbewerbsmarkt / Vollständige KonkurrenzA competitive market is one in which a large numbers of producers compete with each other to satisfy the wants and needs of a large number of consumers. In a competitive market no single producer, or group of producers, and no single consumer, or group of consumers, can dictate how the market operates. Nor can they individually determine the price of goods and services, and how much will be exchanged. Competitive markets will form under certain conditions. (http://www.economicsonline.co.uk/Competitive_markets/Competitive_markets.html)Ökonomik
interestZinsenA comprehensive term to describe any right, claim, or privilege that an individual has toward real or Personal Property. Compensation for the use of borrowed money. (http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Interest+(economics))Ökonomik
regratersZwischenhändler One that regrates supplies or necessities. (https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/regrater)Ökonomik